Vector-borne diseases are transmitted by an insect or any living carrier that transports the infection to a susceptible individual, or its food or immediate surroundings. Transmission of vector-borne diseases to humans is dependant upon three factors: the pathological agent, the anthropod vector; and the host. Common vectors include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, lice and mites.
Vector-borne diseases survive through vectors’ use of animals as their vertebrate hosts. Some vector-borne diseases, such as those in the Rickettsia genus, do not have animal reservoirs, making humans the major host. Other vector-borne diseases, like West Nile virus, use an intermediary animal host to serve as a reservoir for the pathogens until susceptible human populations are exposed to the disease.
Outbreaks of vector-borne disease depend on several factors:
- The abundance of vectors and hosts
- The prevalence of the pathogen in the vectors and hosts
- The area’s environmental conditions, such as temperature or humidity levels
- Resilience, behavior and immune status of the human population of a specific area
Focus Diagnostics has played a role in the discovery and surveillance of emerging infectious diseases through the development of serological testing. Beginning with laboratory testing services for Lyme disease more than 25 years ago, Focus scientists have continued to collaborate with leading researchers and health agencies worldwide. Today, Focus Diagnostics is an ISO-certified manufacturer of high quality serological test kits for many vector-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), arbovirus (EEE, SLE, CE and WEE viruses), and rickettsia.
West Nile Virus IgG or IgM DxSelect™
For the qualitative detection of IgG or IgM antibodies to West Nile virus in human serum.
Q Fever IFA IgG or IgM
For the detection and semi-quantitation of IgG or IgM antibodies to Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever in human serum.
Arbovirus IFA IgG or IgM
For the detection and semi-quantitation of IgG or IgM antibodies to St. Louis encephalitis (SLE), western equine encephalitis (WEE), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), and California encephalitis / La Crosse (CE) group viruses in human serum.
Rickettsia IFA IgG or IgM
For the detection and semi-quantitation of IgG or IgM antibodies to R. rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and to R. typhi, the etiologic agent of murine typhus, in human serum.