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Reference Laboratory
Tests
 
-242
Vaccine Response Assays (See assays: Bordetella pertussis, Diphtheria, Haemophilus, Meningococcal, Polio Neutralization, Pneumococcal, or Tetanus, or panels: Humoral Immunity Evaluation, Immune Status Panel or Tetanus/Diphtheria Panel). print

 
-243
Valley Fever (See Coccidioides) print

 
-244
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus
(See Bacterial Culture, Screen for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus)
print

 
3650
Varicella Zoster Antigen, DFA print

The sensitivity of this test is highly dependent upon proper collection of an adequate patient specimen and upon the age of the lesion. Specimens should be collected by scraping the base of a fresh vesicular lesion. A sufficient number of cells from the lesion must be collected for optimal performance of this test. Poor sample quality may cause direct specimens to be falsely negative or inadequate for analysis.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

Direct Fluorescent Antibody Stain
Not detected
Vesicular lesion swab in VCM or equivalent or air dried smear.

To maintain optimum viability, place swab into VCM or equivalent and transport the specimen to the laboratory as soon as possible. Best recovery is obtained when the specimens are refrigerated at 2-8C or kept on wet ice following collection and while in transit. If there will be a long delay before processing, specimens in VCM or equivalent should be frozen at -70C or colder and transported on dry ice. Storage or transport at -20C is not acceptable. Raw (unpreserved) samples should only be refrigerated and not frozen.
Air-dried smear
Eye swab
Refrigerated (2-8° C)
1 to 2 days
87290
 
45020
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) DNA, Qualitative Real-Time PCR print

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that causes chickenpox as a primary infection and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster or shingles. VZV infection in immunocompromised individuals often leads to a progressive disease state involving multiple organs. The detection of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) DNA is based upon the real-time amplification and detection of specific VZV genomic DNA sequences by PCR from total DNA extracted from the specimen.

This test is not approved for New York patient testing.

Real-Time PCR
Not detected
1 mL CSF, or whole blood (EDTA or ACD)
Minimum: 0.05 mL -CSF and eye fluid;
0.3 mL - all other specimen sources.
Bronchial brush/wash, eye, nasopharyngeal, throat or lesion (vesicle) aspirate in a sterile plastic leak-proof container or swab in M4 or
V-C-M medium; 3mm3 tissue
Whole blood: Room temperature
All others: 2-8° C
1 to 2 days
87798
 
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2691
Varicella Zoster Virus Culture, Rapid Method print

The use of centrifugation-enhanced shell vial culture methods combined with sensitive monoclonal antibody staining technique reduces the time for isolation of Varicella-Zoster Virus to four days. Isolation ordinarily take as much as 7 to 14 days using conventional tube culture methods.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

Centrifugation Enhanced Culture with Immunofluorescence
Not Isolated
Vesicular lesion swab in VCM or equivalent
Respiratory specimens such as throat swab, bronchial washings/lavage (BAL), tracheal aspirates; Eye/conjunctiva; Tissue biopsy; Sterile Body Fluids;CSF. 3 mL (1 mL minimum) for all fluid specimens

To maintain optimum viability, place swab or fluid into VCM (equal volumes of fluid and VCM) or equivalent and transport the specimen to the laboratory as soon as possible. Best recovery is obtained when the specimens are refrigerated at 2-8C or kept on wet ice following collection and while in transit. If there will be a long delay before processing, specimens in VCM or equivalent should be frozen at -70C or colder and transported on dry ice. Storage or transport at -20C is not acceptable. Raw (unpreserved) samples should only be refrigerated and not frozen.
Refrigerated (2-8° C)
4 to 6 days
87254
 
45025
Varicella Zoster Virus DNA, Qual to Quant Real-Time PCR Reflex print

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox as a primary infection and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster or shingles. In immunocompromised individuals VZV infection often leads to a progressive disease state involving multiple organs. If VZV DNA is detected in the qualitative assay, the specimen will reflex to the VZV Quantitative Real-Time PCR (Focus Unit Code 45200) for an additional charge. The quantitative range if reflexed is 500 - 35,000,000 VZV DNA copies/mL.

This test is not approved for New York patient testing.

Real-Time PCR
Not detected
1 mL whole blood (EDTA, ACD), CSF, bronchial wash/brush; swab in M4 or V-C-M medium
(minimum 0.3 mL)
Whole blood: Room temperature
All others: 2-8° C
1 to 2 days
87799
 
61025
Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Antibody (Total, IgM), ACIF/IFA, CSF print

Detection of intrathecally-produced organism-specific antibodies in CSF indicates central nervous system infection. However, serum levels of organism-specific antibodies, blood-brain barrier integrity, and possible CSF contamination by blood should be considered when assessing CSF results.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

ACIF (Anti-Complement Immunofluorescence) and IFA (Immunofluorescence Assay)
ACIF <1:2
IgM <1:1
1 mL CSF
(minimum 0.15 mL)
Room Temperature
1 to 4 days
86787 x 2
 
61015
Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) Antibody, ACIF (CSF) print

Detection of intrathecally-produced organism-specific antibodies in CSF indicates central nervous system infection. However, serum levels of organism-specific antibodies, blood-brain barrier integrity, and possible CSF contamination by blood should be considered when assessing CSF results.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

ACIF (Anti-Complement Immunofluorescence)
<1:2
1 mL CSF
(minimum 0.1 mL)
Room Temperature
1 to 4 days
86787
 
45200
Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) DNA, Quantitative Real-Time PCR print

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that causes chickenpox as a primary infection and can reactivate later in life as herpes zoster or shingles. VZV infection in immunocompromised individuals often leads to a progressive disease state involving multiple organs. The detection of Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) DNA is based upon the real-time amplification and detection of specific VZV genomic DNA sequences by PCR from total DNA extracted from the specimen. The quantitative range of this assay is 500 - 2,000,000 VZV DNA copies/mL.

This test is not approved for New York patient testing.

Real-Time PCR
<500 copies/mL
0.7 mL whole blood (EDTA, ACD), CSF, bronchial wash/brush; swab in M4 or V-C-M medium
(minimum 0.3 mL)
Whole blood: Room temperature
All others: 2-8° C
1 to 2 days
87799
 
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61030
Varicella-Zoster Virus (VZV) IgM Antibody, IFA (CSF) print

Detection of intrathecally-produced organism-specific antibodies in CSF indicates central nervous system infection. However, serum levels of organism-specific antibodies, blood-brain barrier integrity, and possible CSF contamination by blood should be considered when assessing CSF results.

This test is available for New York patient testing.

IFA (Immunofluorescence Assay)
<1:1
1 mL CSF
(minimum 0.1 mL)
Room Temperature
1 to 4 days
86787
 
41015
Varicella-Zoster Virus AB (Immunity Screen), ACIF (Serum) print

A positive titer (>=1:4) by anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) indicates a history of past infection by Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). This antibody is usually detectable within 2 days after the onset of rash and is, thereafter, detectable for life. Conversely, the absence of detectable antibody can be used as evidence of susceptibility to varicella (chickenpox).

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

ACIF (Anti-Complement Immunofluorescence)
<1:4
1 mL serum
(minimum 0.075 mL)
2-8° C
1 to 4 days
86787
 
34128
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibodies (IgG, IgM) print

 

Immunoassay
See individual assays
1 mL (0.5 mL minimum) serum
Room temperature
See individual assays
86787 x2
 
4439
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgG) print

Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox and when reactivated, potentially decades later, causes shingles. Twenty percent of adults will develop shingles, a rash or blister of the skin that may cause severe pain. VZV IgG, EIA reliably measures immunity due to previous infection, but is unsuitable for detection of post-vaccination immune status.

Immunoassay
< or = 0.90
1 mL (0.1 mL minimum) serum
Room temperature
1 to 4 days
86787
 
8683
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody (IgM) print

The detection of IgM antibody to Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) usually indicates recent/current infection but occasionally may indicate reactivation of VZV or infection with other Herpesviruses. Definitive evidence for recent exposure to VZV would be detection of increasing anti-complement immunofluoresence (ACIF) titers between acute and convalescent sera, see Focus Unit Code 4400. IgM antibody typically remains detectable two to three months after initial infection.

This test is available for New York patient testing.

Immunoassay
< or = 0.90
1 mL (0.2 mL minimum) serum
Room temperature
1 to 4 days
86787
 
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61020
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody, CSF print

Detection of intrathecally-produced organism-specific antibodies in CSF indicates central nervous system infection. However, serum levels of organism-specific antibodies, blood-brain barrier integrity, and possible CSF contamination by blood should be considered when assessing CSF results.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

CF (Complement Fixation)
<1:1
1 mL CSF
(minimum 0.5 mL)
Room Temperature
2 to 5 days
86787
 
41020
Varicella-Zoster Virus Antibody, Serum print

A four-fold rise in titer between acute and convalescent sera is required for serodiagnosis of acute chickenpox, zoster, or other diseases caused by Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV). Single titers >=1:256 are considered suggestive of recent or active infection. Please note: This procedure is not intended for determinations of immunity or susceptibility to VZV. For this use, please request the anticomplement immunofluorescence (ACIF) procedure Focus Unit Code 41015, a test that has superior sensitivity.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

CF (Complement Fixation)
<1:8
1 mL serum
(minimum 0.5 mL)
Room temperature
2 to 5 days
86787
 
-245
Vibrio cholera Culture (See Bacterial Culture, Aerobic, Stool)
4128
VDRL, CSF print

VDRL is the test of choice for assessing CNS involvement in syphilis.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

Slide Micro-Flocculation
Non reactive
1 mL CSF (0.2 mL minimum)
Refrigerated (2-8° C)
1 to 4 days
86592
 
30509
VDRL, Serum print

The VDRL is a nontreponemal test to detect antibody to the lipoidal antigen of T. pallidum. Nontreponemal tests for syphilis become reactive 4-6 weeks after infection with titers peaking during secondary to early latent stage. Treatment in the primary or secondary stages usually results in a rapid decline in titer. Treatment given in latent or late stages has less effect on antibody titers and the test may remain reactive at low titers indefinitely. Nontreponemal tests lack specificity and positive sera should be confirmed by Treponema pallidum antibody (FTA-ABS).

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

Slide Micro-Flocculation
Non reactive
1 mL serum (0.5 mL minimum)
2-8° C
1 to 4 days
86592
 
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81112
Viral Culture and Identification print

Culture for measles, mumps and rubella viruses, CMV, Adenovirus, VZV, and other viruses. A variety of cell lines are inoculated and held for up to 3 weeks to detect characteristic cytopathic effects followed by identification using biochemical and immunological methods. PLEASE INDICATE SUSPECTED VIRUS(ES) ON TEST REQUEST FORM.

This test is approved for New York patient testing.

Tissue Culture/Immunofluorescence
None isolated
Lower respiratory secretions, stool, tissue, sputum, urine, CSF, amniotic fluid, tissue ,semen or other normally sterile fluids Volumes: 3 mL (1 mL minimum) fluids 1 g (0.5 g minimum) tissue 1 swab

Viral Chlamydia Medium (VCM) or equivalent or in sterile container (normally sterile fluids such as CSF). Or collected on appropriate swabs Bone marrow: Collect in sterile leak proof container, sodium-heparin, or lithium-heparin green top Vacutainer tube or in viral transport media.

To maintain optimum viability, place swab or fluid into VCM (equal volumes of fluid and VCM) or equivalent and transport the specimen to the laboratory as soon as possible. Best recovery is obtained when the specimens are refrigerated at 2-8 degrees C or kept on wet ice following collection and while in transit. If there will be a long delay before processing, specimens in VCM or equivalent should be frozen at -70 degrees C or colder and transported on dry ice. Storage or transport at - 20 degrees C is not acceptable. Raw samples should only be refrigerated and not frozen.
Refrigerated (2-8° C)
2 to 24 days
87252; 87253
 
-246
Viral Culture, Rapid (See Herpes Simplex Virus Rapid Culture, Cytomegalovirus Rapid Culture,
Influenza Virus Rapid Culture, Respiratory Virus Rapid Culture,
or Varicella-Zoster Virus Rapid Culture)
print

 
-247
Viral Serum Level (See Antiviral Serum Level)
-248
Viral Susceptibility Testing (See Antiviral Susceptibility) print

 
-250
VRE (See Bacterial Culture, Screen for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus) print

 
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